Category Archives: Monifieth town

President’s Report September – Become a Friend

Friday 8th September 2017.

We are depleted in numbers due to the illness, of Alex Bell, our Vice President, and Doris Bayne, our Treasurer.

Their invaluable work as Society volunteers, I feel should be recognised by nomination for Honorary Membership, with the wish to see them soon back in good health . Seems as though the summer is over and we are now planning for the Autumn months. We should feel some sense of achievement in the fact that after 17 years since the formation of the group, we are still very active and contributing a much welcomed service to the community at large.

Monifieth, unlike other Angus towns, being bereft of some services provided by the Angus Council Administration, is dependent on voluntary organisations to preserve and encourage the sense of community. Monifieth Local History Society’s objective in preserving the Heritage of the local area. The success of our work, can perhaps be gauged by the House of Memories, and Website, both being very active for over 13 year, and yet still creating much interest.

The financing of both has over the years been graphically ‘peaks & troughs’, and causing many sleepless hours for those associated with fundraising. However, we are still here and operational, thanks to the generosity of the local community, Angus Council Community Funding, and the initiative of our volunteer fundraisers. We still survive. The Future requires us to consider, even re-consider ideas old and new, to maintain and improve our objectives. We do have some feedback from those who attended our recent talk “Monifieth’s Disappearing Heritage”, for example; Friends of the House of Memories. Those who are prepared to sign up as interested in supporting our work, without the necessity of becoming ‘paid up ‘ members.

PLEASE LET US KNOW IF YOU WISH TO BECOME A FRIEND

One final suggestion, with the approach of the ‘cooler autumn days’, the ’55’ volunteers, bring out their woollens for warmth.( Energy prices are rising) Thank you all for your commitment and hard work.

FROM THE ARCHIVES

The Monifieth Local History Society was formed in September 2000 under the patronage of Lord George Thomson, of Monifieth, by a number of people interested in researching, recording, and promoting the social and industrial past of the ancient community of Monifieth.

The main objective of the Societybeing to create an awareness of the many historic happenings, and events connected with the Burgh, locally, nationally and internationally.

Learned historians have recorded that in pre-historic times , the only collection of human dwellings, in what we now call Scotland, were at Laws, Ardestie and Ardownie sometime around 3000BC.

The development over 5000 years to the present day has resulted in a community spirit, which is caring, vibrant, and very much concerned with the future of how their home own will evolve.

The Society’s work will hopefully convey the innermost feelings of the people of Monifieth past and present.

The future is unpredictable, however, with the experience of a community surviving for 5000 years, we believe Monifieth’s residents will look forward with future generations considering it to be ” The Best Place to call Home ”

Ardestie Earth House

Ardestie Earth House

As sure as the sun, has arisen and set for thousands of years the Dighty flows into the Tay beside the place where many have been proud to call home.

To others it is known as Monifieth

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Heritage Walk – Two

Monifieth South Church, Queen Street, Hill Street, Albert Street, Durham Street, Grange Road, Paradise

Our walk starts at the junction of Church Street and Hill Street, beside the once grand entrance to Seaview House. On our right at the lower end of Queen street stands the Monifieth South Church.

South Church

South Church

We have already learned of the twists and turns of the congregations of Monifieth churches which were involved in the troubles from 1843. You may recall the  story of Rev Samuel Millar who ‘left his manse, stipend and kirk’ for his principled beliefs, the formation of the Monifieth North Kirk at Hillocks, at the parish boundary with Kingennie, then the 1869 application for a ‘preaching station’ within the village.

Hillock Kirk c1910

Hillock Kirk c1910

Consequently in 1872 for £1000 and ‘free manual labour’ by the then congregation  in a more simple form than the present day ornate construction, the Monifieth South Church was built. Perhaps the economies of past parishioners is reflected in the recording of ‘purchased from a shipyard, at a cost of £3, a bell to he placed in the belfry’. The first wooden tower to house the bell was blown down in a severe gale. The present magnificent tower to house the bell, was the replacement erected at the same time as a gallery was installed within the main church building in 1884. The Manse which is to be found within the ‘glebe’ in Queen Street, was built in 1874. The money was raised for these modifications by the Congregation who held fund raising efforts, which included a bazaar held in the Kinnaird Hall, in Dundee. Recent celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the formation of Monifieth South Church, reflected the dedication of the congregation, some descended from families who followed their minister Rev Millar for the ‘freedom of the Kirk’. Only a few yards from St Rules the Parish Kirk with ‘the split now resolved, there are good relations between both. Monifieth can boast that there are indeed ‘good relations between all the differing places of worship of varying religious beliefs within the burgh and most community events within any of the local church halls are non- denominational’.

Within Queen Street and beyond the South Church Manse is a small housing estate within the grounds of Tighnduin House. Old maps show that this was the property of one of the Gilroy family, the owners of one of the largest textile manufacturing factories in Dundee. Their premises, which employed well over one thousand workers, can still be seen in the city’s Ward Road, of course redeveloped for other businesses. We return back down towards Hill Street, noting the Seaview Primary School playing fields where once there was a street known as Glebe Street, connecting Queen and Victoria Streets.

Monifieth perhaps with their removal of a street name indirectly separated a Queen from her crown!. We proceed along Hill Street in the direction of the thoroughfare named after Victoria’s consort, namely Albert Street. When we are almost at the junction, an ornate lampost can be seen outside what was the former home of one of Monifieth’s most respected Provosts. It was customary to erect a light outside the local dignitaries homes as a sign of recognition and respect of the high office held. Although there are dwellings on either side, the six foot high boundary wall of Monifieth House can still be recognised. Monffieth House Hotel as it is now, but affectionately known to all locals as the ‘Guestie’ was the family home of the Lyell family, the brothers James C Lyell and Charles Lyell, who first introduced jute spinning to Monifieth in  1873 at what was later to become Low & Duff’s foundry. Adjoining the Guestie’ in Albert Street, is the private Monifieth bowling club, reputedly on of the best in Tayside. You can also find a street named Fonstane after the mysterious block of stone, which has for centuries roused curiosity and questions as to its origins. Although we are in the vicinity of the road named Paradise and houses built on what was fields referred to by this illustrious name, we have still some distance to cover before we reach our destination.

We will walk along Durham Street, named after the historic family of Grange and surrounding estates of Ethiebeaton, Ardownie, Omachie, Pitkerro and Easter Powrie.

Durham Street

Durham Street

In 1534 john Durham, second son of the seventh Durham , laird of Grange bought one third of the estate of Pitkerro, from James Scrimgeour, Constable of Dundee. Alexander Durham, the third laird of Pitkerro served James VI of Scotland and 1st of Great Britain as Silversmith and Marshal. His son James Durham became James VI & 1st’s cashier and Clerk of Exchequer. The Durham’s of Monifieth district certainly a legacy of historical interest to those who would wish to read their story. Most of the villa’s built in the street named in celebration of their feats were built by and locally known as the ‘Syndicate Houses’. Local tradesmen formed a building syndicate and made a combined effort both in labour and financial costs to erect desirable properties for sale to private individuals. The houses are a credit to their inspired business sense and excellent craftsmanship.

After crossing Bank Street, where can be seen the excellent houses built with council funds, immediately post Second World War, for rent by natives of the burgh, we approach the junction with Grange Road

Seven Arches

Seven Arches

Before us we can see the Monifieth High School built beside the Seven Arches and Panmure fields where the bleaching was carried out in bygone days. We can also trace the wanderings of the Dighty burn which provided power for so many industries by its banks. The Dighty Water starts it’s journey to the sea rising in the Lochs of Lundie. Throughout it’s meanderings it is fed by many smaller tributaries one of which being the Lammerton burn which marks the boundary between Dundee and Murroes. We have already visited the part where it passes from the Linlathen estate beside the ‘Cauld Water Wellie’, then on from the den, under the Dundee to Arbroath Road to Balmossie Mill, then past the place of the ancient chapel of Eglismonichty, under the Seven Arches. Near to this spot legend would have us believe there is a deep pool, many years ago known as Rob’s Pool’. The story relates how a farm worker when ploughing a field nearby, fell into the ‘hole’ and disappeared with the plough. Perhaps this tale has some connection with the unfortunate death of Robert Easson, the miller from nearby Balmossie Mill, who fell into the dam and was drowned in May 1898. Superstition then being that the pool was bottomless. Despite its picturesque appearance the Dighty water is not to be misjudged having been the cause of several people losing their lives through accidental drowning.

Balmossie Bridge

Balmossie Bridge

As we climb up the hilly’ ascent of Grange road we observe on our left Milton House Hotel

The Milton

The Milton

History tells us that this is one of the oldest residences in the burgh. Formerly named Grange cottage it was refurbished in 1912, by the then owner Thomas Anderson, when the crow stepped gables were added giving it the appearance of a Scottish baronial Residence. Previously a mill was to be found nearby. In 1890 the ‘little’ mill which had been a very busy place was becoming ruinous and a short time later required to be demolished. Spinning and several other industries over the previous years had been carried out here. Grange cottage, as if was then known, was the mill owners house.

Burnside Milton

Burnside Milton

On the high ground behind the cottage were several workmen’s houses. The last noted carrying on a business within the ‘little’ mill was John Watson, who produced wooden ware and household utensils, such as ladles, bowls and brose cups. Certainly the meals provided by the present day hotel are far removed from the meat and milk staple diets of the past. Perhaps the previous occupants of the two older typical farm cottages on our right would have been more acquainted with the porridge, brose and bannocks regime. At one time surrounded by farmland and green fields they must have indeed been worthy of their name Paradise Cottages. This given name Paradise was quite popular throughout Scotland, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to denote an area of ground which had been enclosed and planted. Enjoy the spectacular view while at the same time pin pointing places of interest seen on our trails. Hopefully something has been learned of Monifieth, its history, industries and most of all its people. If not then being in the fresh sea air can only have been of benefit to your health, walking where once was only sheep roads and rabbits burrows’. Reconsider now, in your opinion is Monifieth the ‘hill of the stag’ or is it a ‘monks land or Holy place’?. Certainly within its boundaries things have grown and blossomed, perhaps as our forefathers named their fertile ground they may have been more accurate by naming the burgh Paradise.known-as-monifieth

 

 

Monifieth Traders long ago

Not quite sure of the dates but thought it may prompt some memories.

Please write in if you have any information to add to the advertising.

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Monifieth and its Amenities – 1889

FROM “THE DUNDEE COURIER” JUNE 12th, 1889

 

As a seaside summer resort there arc few places more favoured than Monifieth. It possesses many of the advantages which are most valued both in watering places and inland re­treats. While enjoying the bracing breezes from the German Ocean, it is sufficiently sheltered by bent hills and a delightful stretch of downs, the eastern wind being tempered by the heat of the grassy slopes over which it passes.

Again if we look to the sea, Nature has also been gracious to Monifieth. Safe, pleasant, and ample accommodation is found for bathing purposes.

Monifieth Beach

Monifieth Beach

Those who love fishing may en­joy themselves to the top of their bent.

To the west of the railway station, and south of the line, there is in their season a very paradise of wild roses, where children may play all day long, while those who appreciate rural walks can have them to their heart’s content.

The line rising ground up from the village would hold many excellent residences, commanding a rare sea view, and receiving the healthful airs from the Firth of Tay.

If to these attract­ions are added those presented by a magnificent golfing ground it will be found that Monifieth is a place whose natural advant­ages has not been stinted.

Golfers 1890's

Golfers 1890’s

at the tee

at the tee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Builders have begun to realise this and scores of cottages have been erected in the village which promises soon to compete, as a summer resort, with larger places east and west of it.

Rambles Round Monifieth

 

Rambles Round Monifieth

Without  ILLUSTRATIONS.

 

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS

This is a neatly got up pamphlet, and contains interesting sketches of place in and around Monifieth, with several illustrations which will make it of special value to all who are connected with the district. — “People’s Journal.”

The sketches about Monifieth and its neighbourhood embrace notices of the antiquities and later recollections of the district, as well as of its mansions and topography generally. They form an interesting little book.-“Arbroath Guide.’

This is a delightful little local history, showing careful and wide research It is arranged with fine literary taste, and in small compass gives much valuable and interesting information, flavoured with racy anecdotes of the olden time It will be found very useful to strangers as an intelligent and pleasing guide to places of historic interest throughout the district.–“Brechin Advertiser”.

 

Summer Day Rambles

Being a continuation of

Rambles Round Monifieth

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS

Contains descriptive papers on Broughty Ferry, Pitkerrow, Duntrune, Barry and East Haven, and a number of other places within a four mile radius Monifieth.   A useful and pleasant little book.- -“People’s Friend.”

The antiquities of the district seem to have special attraction for the author and he writes of them, not in the rusty creaking style so often adopted, but with living interest and in animated phrase. — “Arbroath Herald.”

 

Monifieth: Its Antiquity

And Historical Associations

This pamphlet contains the following illustrations, accompanied with letterpress descriptions:—High Street, Monifieth; Grange House; Monifieth from the Railway Station; Woodhill House Grange Cottage and Ruins of the Little Mill; Balmossie Railway Bridge ; Milton of Monifieth ; the Sunday School Hall ; Monifieth from the South-West. Besides the above it also contain a series of articles on topics of interest to those resident in the district, extracts from which will be found in this issue of the Almanac.

Note—Either of the above sent, post free, to any address for 3d in stamps; or the three can be had neatly bound in one volume, cloth, gold lettered, price 1s 4d. As the editions are nearly exhausted —only six copies of the second one being left—and as they will not he reprinted early application is necessary.

DAVID MACRAE, Bookseller Monifieth.

Monifieth a Pictish Centre

By Mhairi Pyott

Introduction:

On the few brochures I have seen with reference to Monifieth, it is inevitably described as having been an important Pictish Centre.

This prompted me to question where was this factual information recorded. Had someone gathered all the facts, collated them into some form of essay or manuscript?  If there is such a document then I have still to locate it.  Of course this comes as no great surprise as the history of what we now know as the Angus town of Monifieth has very few written historical records of its existence or industrial and social community development .

I considered that the best place to seek out the necessary information and evidence was to start right at the beginning

Who were the Picts?

Where did they come from?

What was their lifestyle?

What happened to them?

Was Monifieth a centre of Pictish activity?

The Picts left no written records in fact there is no definite conclusion as to the language spoken by them. Records were made regarding these `people’, however, they were written by the Romans & the Irish, some, centuries after the events. Unfortunately enemies do not always record the true pictures or record of events. This means that what one reads in books and papers can be fact or fiction depending on the honesty and reliability of the information source. Like a complicated word puzzle formed by linking together various myths and stories then perhaps we might uncover some answers to our questions.As further confirmation to the findings of the written word, we could where possible, examine any physical evidence available today.

Who were the Picts

The Picts have captured everyone`s imagination, unlike any other ancient people. They have been described as mysterious, sun worshipping naked warriors, who covered their bodies with tattoos. For nearly 500 years they dominated northern Britain remaining free and unconquered beyond the borders of the Roman World. They represent a Celtic civilization who were the first barbarians to form a recognisable nation. They were the first Celtic speaking group which dominated Britain, Ireland and central Europe. This explains the unusual customs: their provinces were inherited through the female line, the new Queen taking a male consort for marriage and defence, generally from outside the community.Their weapons, forts, social organizations, marriage customs and clothing were not so radically different from those of other communities who occupied Britain. The Picts were not a race, although they might have briefly been a nation.

Where did they come from?

At the end of the last ice age around ten thousand years ago, what we know as the land mass of Scotland and England was joined to mainland Europe. A few wandering tribes of nomadic people migrated to areas, where the ice had receded, leaving them free to hunt and fish. Some of these tribes were short, with black hair and dark skin from where we today know as the Iberian Peninsula. Others from the Scandanavian countries with fair hair & blue eyes, they fit what was described as Pictish characteristic features. A few sturdy people with red hair and blue eyes similar to the Irish were described as Pictish warriors. These facts give us no clear picture of their physical characteristics.

It is said that similar to the people of today they had their own aspirations in music and the art, forecasting, weather and very knowledgeable in the use of herbal medicine. They were extremely artistic and very skilled in the use of tools, making jewellery and sculptured stones. 

It has been written in `Historia Norwegia` a Scandinavian text of the thirteenth century: These islands were first inhabited by the Picts and Papae. Of these , the one race, the Picts , little exceeded pigmies in stature. They did marvels in the mornings and evenings, in building walled towns but by midday they entirely lost all their strength and lurked through fear in little underground houses.

The Papae were Celtic priests , specifically all monks and hermits who made their dwellings on remote isles around the coast of Scotland. The walled towns are most probably Brochs and the underground houses  Souterrains. It could be that the Pictish tribes were exactly similar to the present   population of Scotland. Migration continued over the centuries with the `hunters, gatherers` gradually settling in one district where they began to clear ground for growing a few crops and raising domestic animals.

Eight thousand years ago following a massive `land slip` the North Sea was formed and Britain became an Island. This tsunami type event meant that the only method of migration to or from the island was by boat. 

Irish legend and Pictish mythology has it`Cruithne son of Cinge, the father of the Picts reigned for 100 years. He had seven sons, whose names were Fib, Fidach, Fotlaig, Fortrenn, Cait, Ce and Circinn.`

Cat ruled for twelve years the area Caithness, Sutherland, WestHighlands, Northern and Western Islands. Fidach for forty years ruled Moray, Nairn and Ross. Ce ruled for fifteen years Banff Buchan and parts of Aberdeenshire. Fotlaig ruled for thirty years Athol, & Gowrie.  Circinn ruled for sixty years over Angus and the Mearns. Fortrenn ruled for over seventy years Strathearn and Menteith. Fib ruled for twenty four years over Fife and Kinross.

This legend indicates that there were various groups of Picts under their own leaders or `Kings`. This description was, of a nation formed by different groups and tribes or as they much later became known as clans.

A similar comparison would be the manner in which reference is made to the native inhabitants of North America as being `Red Indians` when we know that there were Apache, Sioux , Blackfeet and Cheyenne, with many others forming the North American Indian nation or the Maori and Aborigines of Australasia.

 Until the Roman invasion the various tribes were collectively named `Cruithne` by the Irish, which is probably more accurate than Pictii or `painted ones` recorded by the Roman Eumenius in 297AD. Did they paint their skin in times of battle for recognition or as `war paint`, again similar to the Indians or other tribal warriors?

In the third century there were several more tribes noted in what is now Scotland, Maeatae, Caledonii, Taezli, Venicones.

Our main interest lies in Southern Pictland and the areas at one time ruled by Circinn, Fortrenn and Fib. Monifieth was part of South Pictland which extended from the Forth to the Grampians. What is known of the Picts in the early part of history as recorded by learned historians, in the age when the population of what is now Scotland, was around 250 people, the only collection of human`s dwellings was at Ardestie, Monifieth.

 Religion.

St Ninian was the first missionary to visit South Pictland, at the start of the fifth century. His people `conversions` to Christianity were short lived, with a return to paganism — the worship of the sun, moon, water, air, day & night, sea, land , rain clouds and wind.

The priests were Druids, which means `wise men`. Over 150 years later Columba overcame the pagan worship. In 563AD he had crossed from Ireland to Iona to form his Christian settlement.  At Inverness in 565AD he converted King Brude, of the Picts to Christianity. Eventually his mission brought him to the banks of the River Tay. One of his reputed followers the so called St Rule or Regulas.

St Rules pre-1902

St Rules pre-1902

The existing parish Church of Monifieth, StRules, erected in 1812, is built on the site of former places of worship certainly since the year 574 AD and reputedly even earlier. From the around the 8th century a Culdee settlement was formed in Monifieth. These religious monks , of Irish extraction name Ceil De or `men of God` were monastic brothers who served the poor.  Although permitted to marry they retreated to what was the solitude of `beehive type cells` for prayer.

Unlike the Roman belief of the Christian gospels and the teachings of St Peter this Celtic religion was based on the worship of St Andrew`s gospel. St Rule the said follower of Columba has had his name given to the Monifieth parish Church and the Tower within the ruins of St Andrews Cathedral. One legend credits Rule with involvement in the relics of our patron Saint being brought from Patras in Greece to Scotland. On the hazardous journey, which if it is accurate, in Rules being in the accompanying party,  must have lasted about three hundred years .It has been written that another of the accompanying guardians was St Bridget , while others have stated it was St Catherine, both reputedly have historic connections with the local area.

The Celtic church in Monifieth survived much longer than in other areas, as records show it still existed into the twelfth century.

 

 King Hungas of the Picts, who reigned 729-761 AD  , had three sons, who were met by `men of the Church` custodians of the St. Andrews relics ( several bones), at Forteviot, where they gifted a tenth part of Forteviot to God & St Andrew. The group then  set forth to meet the King at what today is known as Balmossie, it was then called Moneclatu, where there was a Royal Hall. Moneclatu was later renamed as Monichi— or Holy Place. A church was built at Monichi and dedicated to St Andrew. This was sited at the place where the relics had been placed while resting from the journey. It was named Eglismonichty   — Church of the Holy Place.    

The relics of St Andrew were brought to Pictland about 730 AD and it is significant that King Hungas made in 736AD an endowment of land directly associated with St Andrew at Kilrymont for the erection of a Church and oratories. In token of this gift King Hungas in the presence of nobles and church dignitaries took a turf and laid it as an offering on the altar of St Andrew.

Queen Fichem, wife of Hungas was delivered of a daughter Mouren, who later died. She was buried at Kilrymont in consecrated ground. The first to be interred there. The Pictish royal line of descent was matrilineal , that is through the female line, which would indicate the importance of Mouren. There was much rivalry between fathers, sons and male cousins for the Kingship. This could be the cause of much fighting. Hungas although a Pictish King was most probably of Irish blood being the son of Fergus.

The Royal Hall was most probably within a close distance of the Laws fort, where in times of danger the local residents would with their `goods , chattles and stock` seek refuge within it`s protective walls.  

In his book the `Monikie Story`, the Rev Douglas Chisolm tells a story of `women with children, slowly making their way up the hill, the struggling group eventually going through the opening to safety in the walled ditches of the fort. The men already there, on guard watching for the approaching enemy.  

Who were their enemies, other Pictish tribesmen, Romans, Danish Vikings, people who would attempt to enforce upon them Christian conversion.?  The Celtic Church survived in Monifieth for many centuries, with reference frequently made to the Abbot of Monifieth. The Church with its land and properties was gifted to the Abbey of Arbroath by Matilda Countess of Angus in the 12th century.

What became of the Pictish people?

There is no real answer to the question. No records of them being `wiped out` in battle exist. They were in fact very successful warriors as proved by the result of the Battle of Nechtansmere and later many victorious battles fought by King Hungas. The Romans built Hadrian`s and the Antonine walls  to protect themselves and their interests from the `warriors of Pictland`. They were accomplished sailors with a fleet of boats, large enough to convey troops of Hungas to `do battle` in Ireland. There were constant crossings between the Western & Northern Isles.

Perhaps with the increased population and migration a gradual integration of the peoples occurred absorbing the Pictish people into some similar race, forming what is now the Scottish nation.

Contrary to many conflicting tales presented in Scottish Chronicles, written much later than the Pictish era, there was no mass destruction or genocide involved in the nations disappearance. It would appear to have been purely political following the defeat by the Scots. Eventually the process of change evolved and continued throughout much of the ninth century.  Kenneth Mac Alpin, was left with only the noble leaders of Pictavia. Those remaining whose fate lay in the hands of the new regime.  The old customs, traditions and language were discarded. The process happened quickly and was spurred on by the belief that the entire Pictish nation had been completely wiped out. This belief was so firmly embedded being openly stated at the highest levels. It appeared in the Declaration of Arbroath, the affirmation for Scottish Independence, drawn up in 1320 in defiance of English aggression. The Declaration sent to the Pope urged him to accept the Scots as rightful masters of Scotland because “they had utterly destroyed the Picts”. Several explanations were written probably in the 11th or 12th century, following the reign of Kenneth Mac Alpin, “by way of understanding for the disappearance of the Pictish nation”.  One story relates how the “over All King” Kenneth and his followers invited the Pictish aristocracy to a feast at Scone. The feast turned into a massacre of the intoxicated guests, who had been seated on a captive bench placed over a pit where their mutilated bodies were cast down”. This fictional tale of the extermination of the elite is also to be found in varying forms, in Ireland, Wales , Germany and Russia.

What can we see today that is proof of Monifieth`s Pictish connection

The vitrified hill fort at Laws of Kingennie is one of the most important memorials of our early ancestors. Covering an area of at least two acres, the buildings and fortifications having taken centuries to establish.

Defensive walls today

Defensive walls today

Despite the Romans stating `the Picts had neither forts nor cities` they certainly existed according to Adamnan`s `Life of Columba` On his visit to Inverness to the residence of King Brude ~the gate of the castle was closed against him~ and the vitrified fort at Craig Phadric, remains of which still exist , might have been his stronghold.  A mile north west of the Laws on a small hill there is a ruinous construction called St Bride`s Ring. Nothing is known of it`s history. It stands upon an apex which juts out on the east side of the hill. The headlands are very precipitous rising to the height of forty or fifty feet above the level of the ground below. The entrance to the structure is on the south, and the hill on this side extends for a considerable distance, widening out as the distance from the fort increases. The walls have been formed of undressed stones, the outside large blocks, with smaller stones on the inside. The walls are seven feet in thickness and what remains of them are about eighteen inches in height above ground level. The diameter of the fort over walls is north to south 68 feet 10 inches and east to west 69 feet 9inches , making the diameter inside the walls 54 feet 6inches. Many of the boulders have been scattered and thrown down the base of the hill.

The main Broch period was between 600BC and AD100. Well before the start of our Pictish age . These structures were fortified dwelling houses serving a household or village . It has been claimed that that four fifths of them were occupied from the mid fifth to mid ninth century. Possibly this had been a church building in King Kenneth`s time, erected by Irish clergy and dedicated to St Bridget. It`s position being chosen for safety from attacks of Danish invaders.

St Bride`s Chapel was sited in what is now the `stack yard ` of South Kingennie farm. The Grange or Grangaria, a store for the Churches tiend sheaves (a form of taxation paid to the Church) was also in this district. Many churches founded in the reign of this King were of Irish design and dedicated to St Bridget or St Bride.

St. Bride's Wall

St. Bride’s Wall

The round tower at Abernethy is said to belong to this period— it`s dedication to St Bridget advances the theory that it`s purpose was to act as a stronghold, where church valuables might be safely stored. A similar Round Tower is still to be seen at Brechin, a relic of the Celtic Church. The clergy might also retire to the safety of these towers when marauding invaders appeared in the neighbourhood.

The Danes having found `rich pickings` in the monasteries, which had sprung up and plundered what was in easy reach of the shore.  About 860 AD they entered the Firth of Tay plundered and laid to waste the country on both shores going as far as Clunie and Dunkeld.The Church at Monifieth suffered greatly at their hands but there is no authentic record of this. A grim struggle took place with the Danes near Monifieth at it`s border with Barry. Under their leader Camus one of Swein`s generals, who having came ashore between Montrose and Arbroath, marched inland, stormed and burned Brechin. Malcolm the second marched from Dundee. The two armies met at Barry links and after a fierce battle the Danes were routed. Camus was pursued and on Downie hill near Monikie received a fatal blow.  A sculptured cross was erected to mark the burial spot. At Aberlemno the shattered remains of Camus`s army suffered further disaster . Pursued as far as Cruden they were finally annihilated. The Pictish Cross erected for the Viking warrior does not depict battle scenes as does the Aberlemno stone. It portrays Church dignitaries and cherubins, which might indicate it was a memorial for some important member of the church officials.

The Cross still stands today although it has been resited at least twice away from the Viking general`s last resting place

The Monifieth Sculptured Stones can still be seen in the Edinburgh Museum of Antiquities.

Replica of the Monifieth Pictish Stone

Replica of the Monifieth Pictish Stone

The four stones belong to the era of the early Celtic church . Unlike the stones at Aberlemno, Glamis, St Vigeans, Letham and Forfar they are not on view to the public in the district where they were found.  The Fontstane, a base of a Celtic free- standing cross is to be found within the grounds of a private residence. The location and purpose of the cross is unknown, but where it has remained for almost two thousand years was once part of a wood. On early maps reference is made to it being named Chapel Wood, which was part of Grange Estate.

 Earth Houses or Souterrain

Souterrain or `under the earth` structures are to be found and viewed at Ardestie, Carlungie and Ardownie.

Ardownie Souterrain

Ardownie Souterrain

Built at least two thousand year ago their purpose has not been definitely confirmed. The living quarters or houses were built above ground, with the underground passages, thought to be used as byres, storage areas and places of safety away from marauding enemies. Some say they were easier to maintain out of the wind and hidden from view. Recent excavations of the Souterrain complex at Ardownie confirmed that the passages were`roofed over` with stones and turf. The Ardownie complex was one of the largest and well preserved ~Pictish Souterrain structures~ ever excavated. What it revealed was, over two thousand  years ago, the builders had a sound understanding of engineering  with uncut stones of great size and weight also  the ability to move them into position for maximum strength walls.  A sliding door mechanism and lintel  discovered, for the first time ever, in a souterrain excavation. It was impossible to examine the whole site as at one point the structure passed under the A92. Aerial pictures revealed what could be another two similar structures close by. Because work had commenced on the upgrading of the A92, the archaeologists recorded, measured and photographed the site before `filling it in`.

Once again out of sight , out of mind.

Despite being associated with the name of the nearby farm Ardownie, it is in very close proximity to Laws Fort, the site of former Eglismonichty Chapel and on what was Balmossie muir.   On the banks of the Dighty water, opposite the `Old Lodge` or gatehouse at what was the drive way to Linlathen House, is a well, known to locals as `The Cauld Water Wellie` or ` St Cats Well`.  Similar to other fresh water springs in the district it reputedly had medicinal properties, hence the former classification as a `Holy Well` dedicated to St Catherine of the St Andrew`s relics connection. Another medicinal well St Kane`s was to be located at the former site of Ardestie Castle, near Balhungie.

Several burial cists have been discovered on Ardownie hill where quarrying operations are being carried out, others found by men working in the fields.

Drawing of the Monifieth Crescent

Drawing of the Monifieth Crescent

  

At Laws farm in 1796 farm labourers when putting in a drain through a large mound found a Pictish bronze crescent. Peter Roger, who rented the farm from Sir Alexander Ramsay of Balmain, passed on the find to the landowner. It`s location is now unknown.

Charles Roger, the farmer`s grandson, made a drawing of the crescent and it`s elaborate designs. This drawing is now in the National Museum of Scotland.

In 1875 when the road to Barnhill was being laid, there was found east of the railway bridge, at a height of about eighty feet above sea level, a Pictish burial ground. In part of the cairn were cists, which contained human remains, an urn, an arrowhead of flint, a small bronze blade and two gold discs. Location of these items are unknown. North of Linlathen House, near Drumsturdy road is a large mound called Cairn Greg, between forty and fifty yards in diameter. Tradition asserts that a chief named Gregory, who normally resided at Colliston, in the parish of St Vigeans, at a place named Castle Gray, was killed in battle here. A stone cist was unearthed in 1834. It contained an earthenware urn, with curious scratched indentations in a zig-zag pattern.  Archaeologists claimed this to be of a domestic variety and not a cinerary type. In this instance however, it held the  `human remains` of the clan chief. Beside it near at hand as if ready for use lay his weapon a bronze dagger four and a half inches long.  The dagger and urn were removed to Linlathen house. This was only two of several belonging to the same age found at different times on the estate.

Location unknown.

Around 1820 a drain was being cut, east of Monifieth, a primitive canoe was found embedded in the peat moss about a mile from the shore.This would be somewhere in the district of Balhungie.  The derivation of the name being taken from the Gaelic meaning Township or Place of Hungie or Hungas.

 

We tend to think of Monifieth area as it exists in it`s present day formation of several combined communities, for example, Ardestie, Grange, Kirkton of Monifieth, Milton of Monifieth, Panmurefield, Burnside of Dighty, Balmossie , to name but a few. Others less well known such as Purlton, Elsinore and several more gone with nothing to show their existence. Present day Monikie was formerly known as Camustown. Laws of Kingennie, Drumsturdy, Temple Hall , Templelands,  Pitairlie, Carlungie, Woodhill, Balhungie, all once  within the Monifieth Parish. Monifieth parish boundaries, very often subject of much discussion still covers most of the areas mentioned. Others have changed, with the passage of time and political intervention, becoming part of another jurisdiction. This however, was long after the days of the Picts, Romans and Vikings

These are only a very few reasons for my belief the Monifieth was indeed a very important Pictish Centre.

I `rest my case` and leave you with a list of further reading which might influence your decision.

Since this was written  Roddy Mathieson has enlarged and cast in bronze the Monifieth Crescent. It will be displayed in the House of Memories sometime during March 2016 for all to see.

Monifieth Crescent in Bronze

Monifieth Crescent in Bronze

        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100 Years Ago in Monifieth

Similar to other Scottish towns the changes over the years have been dramatic, to my personal knowledge the last 40 years have been unbelievable in what the `village` is today as to what is was in the 1970`s. What was it like in 1915 ?.

Research information from various sources, Burgh Council Minutes, Monifieth Almanacs etc., revealed the following information.

Monifieth Town Council

Chief Magistrate, Provost Fenton; Senior Bailie James Nicoll; Junior Bailie, D.W White; Councillors: John B. Crichton, J.M Rattray, Alex Maiden, J.K Doig, M.T. Hannigan, and David ; Burgh Surveyor, Chas A McKenzie; Medical Officer Dr. Gorrie, Procurator- Fiscal, A BurnsPetrie, Conveners of the various committees – Works, J K Doig, Parks & Recreation, David Band, Sanitary, J B Crichton. Gas & Lighting, M T Hannigan. Finance Alex Maiden.

Monifieth Town Council meeting : Provost Fenton and the Council unanimously agreed that: “The Town Council requests that the government

(1) a minimum pension of £1 per week to the widow of every soldier killed in the present war.

(2)a similar pension to the dependent mother of a soldier killed.

(3) £1 per week to the wife of every soldier killed in the fighting line: and

(4) a pension of £1 per week to every soldier `maimed` in the war. `soldier` to include , sailors, territorials. And all other units of His Majesty`s Forces.

Submitted to the Secretary for Scotland, requesting that the same be submitted to His Majesty`s Government.

Monifieth Almanac.

“MonifiethTown Council, the Churches, the Town Improvement Association, and many other organisations set about collecting funds, clothing etc. to provide for the comfort and preserve the health of our men , at the front. The ladies in Monifieth, of every class and degree set to work to knit garments that were necessary and useful. These were produced in abundance, and money collected in the Burgh spoke volumes for the goodness of heart and the patriotism of the people. Everyone gave according to their means.

Monifieth Foundry contributed freely in men and money during wartime. It`s industrial resources also being exploited to help the country in it`s hour of  peril. The old established firm of JF Low & Co. has for several months been largely employed in manufacturing munitions of war. Under the present 1915 management. it is one of the most up to date Foundries in the district. Never in it`s long history has it been called on to fulfil duties such are being carried on within it`s walls. Hitherto it`s products have been made for peace and industry, and these have been carried to many lands. Hopefully in the near future it will again resound with machinery not meant for destruction, but for promoting the comfort, progress and the prosperity of nations.”

JFL World War 1

JFL World War 1

Monifieth Council May 1915

Special Report: Public Convenience Report submitted by the Burgh Surveyor giving alternative estimates for the erection of the proposed Public Convenience. (1) In wood and corrugated iron.: (2) Cast Iron: (3) Brick.

After discussion it was agreed to erect a brick built convenience on the ground. 9 inch thick brickwork, rough cast, hurled on the outside, and lined with enamelled brick inside, for a height of 4 feet 6 inches. The walls above the enamelled work and ceiling to be cement plastered, and the roof slated.

Nursing Staff at Red Cross Military Hospital

Nursing Staff at Red Cross Military Hospital

July 1915: Permission has been formally requested and granted to the Monifieth Red Cross Society, for the erection of a Pavilion at the Red Cross Hospital (Gerard Hall)

Letter to Council: From Burgh Surveyor, to the Recreation Committee:

Gentlemen, I submit letter received fro OC, the 3/5th Black Watch , Forfar, regarding camping facilities for a company of 120 men who are marching through the shire on a recruitment tour. As a matter of urgency I consulted the Convener, with the result that permission was granted for the use of the West End Links for one night. I trust this meets with your approval. I have to report that serious damage has been done to three bathing screens on the foreshore, especially the ones at the East End. In all about ten square yards of lining have been ruthlessly stripped off beside the posts and rails. Instruction given for repair and reported to the Police.”

Letter to Council: An application of 17th July 1915 from James Gibson, Panmure Street, Monifieth, for a licence to ply for hire within the Burgh , and a radius of five miles from the Post Office , in said Burgh, a brake constructed to carry twenty two passengers, has been submitted. The Magistrates granted the licence subject to the provisions of the Burgh Polce (Scotland ) Act 1892, and al Bye Laws, Rules and Regulations , made or to be made, by the Magistrates; allotted as a stance, for said brake, on the south side of the High Street, opposite Taybank, and near the Tramway Car Terminus, the exact site to be pointed out by the Sergeant of Police, at Monifieth: the registered number of the said brake being number one; colour blue and red underneath; and the number of passengers not to exceed twenty two; the licence to endure from this date until 31stMay 1916; and hours and route within the Burgh by which the said brake must run to be from time to time be prescribed by the Magistrates.

Inspector `s Report 1915

I have inspected the milch cows in the Burgh for the quarter ending 30th ultimate, and have to report that I have found them all being in a satisfactory state of health, the number being 37. The dairies, and cow sheds were found to be clean and tidy at the time of my visit.

Account received by the Clerk to the Council:

For maintenance of a patient in Noranside Sanatorium from Monifieth , and now deceased.: Maintenance from 14th December 1914 to 5th May 1915, 145 days at 4/4 = £31-8-4. Hire of Ambulance removing patient from Monifieth to Noranside Sanatorium £1-15-0.. The meeting authorised payment and instructed the Clerk to enquire as to the portion,  if any,  recoverable.

Refreshment Rooms- Bye Laws Leave for internal communication

Application by Antonio Mortali, tenant of shop registered at 62 High Street, for communication between the shop and a room at the back thereof, used as a store and was submitted and read. After discussion the privilege asked for was refused

Taylor the Grocer            Located on the south side of the High Street c1915

Taylor the Grocer
Located on the south side of the High Street c1915

Letter of date 13th March 1915, from Chief Constable Birnie, re making Police Staion of Monifieth suitable as a place of detention, for short sentence prisoners under the Criminal Justice Administration Act 1914.

Police Station High Street 1915

Police Station High Street 1915

 

Gas Works Manager`s Report

Letters received from R.M Mathers, W.P.Laird & Sinclair, Steven & Dron. Submitted that they would require about 52 tons, 70 tons and 104 tons respectively of coke during the current year. The price for coke that would be charged would be under consideration.

Permission was granted for the laying of extra stone setts around the water trough at the top of Well Street.